The Utilization Of Sludge Waste

(Pulp & Paper Mill) To Becames Compost

by: Andreas Gunapradangga, Ir


  • Sludge, waste from pulp – paper mill has become a social and environmental problem.
  • Sludge which contains certain charateristics can be decomposed to become Fine Compost; sludge is not waste but a new form of resources.
  • Soil mineral in general contains low level of Organic Materials (BO = 1,00% s/d 2,00%). Sometimes they are even categorized very low (BO < 1,00%). Therefore, the use of organic compost is essential to improve soil fertility, be it chemically or biologically.
  • Others local resourcesfrom pulp and paper mill (boiler ash and saw mill) are good compost materials.


  • To transform sludge from pulp and paper into Ligno Fine Compost.
  • To increase yield from Forestry with the use of Ligno Fine Compost.


Organized by : Enviromental Protection Division Forestry Research & Development

Consultant : Agrikencana Perkasa, PT


  1. Observation
  2. Formulation
  3. Presentation dan Socialization
  4. Trial Processing (1000 ton)
  5. Laboratory Analysis
  6. Trial in Forrestry
  7. Recommendation and Socialization
  8. Mass Production


  1. Sludge
  2. Animal manure
  3. Saw Mill
  4. Boiler ash
  5. Dolomit
  6. Rock Posphat
  7. Probiodex (decomposer)


  • The decomposition process of organic substance coming from organic crop, animal husbandry waste and other resourches from agroindustry to produce organic fertilizer is usually conducted in a natural process carried out by the soil microorganism so that the plant nutrient increases and becomes available for the plant. Bacteria are the most important microorganism in the decomposition process of organic substances. The natural decomposition process is carried out by 3-4 billions of bacteria in each gram of organic substance or dry soil. The process is conducted in 3 – 12 month. It depends on the kind of the organic substance.
  • The addition of PROBIODEX®bacteria in decomposition process can reduce the decomposition time because the selected bacteria colony in PROBIODEX® helps to decompose complex substances into simpler substances by enzymatic process.
  • PROBIODEX® bacteria will optimally work if the content of water is 60 % and the oxygen supply is sufficient.
  • The by products of the decomposition are CO2; H2O and energy
  • The Process of Decomposition



  1. Mixing
  2. Aeration
  3. Mesophilic/ Breakdown of Solubles
  4. Thermophilic/ Sanitation/ Fungi kiled
  5. Cooling/ Breakdown of Polymer
  6. Maturing
  7. Finishing



dex decomposition


  1. Sludge
  2. Animal manure
  3. Saw Mill
  4. Boiler ash
  5. Dolomit
  6. Rock Posphat
  7. Probiodex (decomposer)


  1. The materials are mixed to become homogenous and heaped in sheltered place with the minimum height 1,5 meters.
  2. The aeration is conducted by turning over the materials every seven days. It is conducted four time.
  3. During the process, the water content is kept ± 60 %
  4. The accumulation of energy in the form of calory is achieved at 700C in at least two weeks.

The decomposition process will stop naturally,t he temperature reduce to +/- 300C, , the water content is +/- 40%, The result is high quality and useful organic fertilizer called: “LIGNO FINE COMPOST”


  1. Free Pathogenic microorganism
  2. Free Parasite and Their Eggs
  3. Free Phytotoxcin
  4. Free Weds seed
  5. Free Ofensive odors


pH; C; N; C/N; Moisture; P-tot; P-Av; CEC; K; Ca; Mg; S; Si; Na; Mn; Zn; Cu; Co; Mo; B; Ag; As; Ba; Cd; Cr; Hg; Ni; Pb; Se; E-colli; Salmonella.





  • It is brown powder developed with modern biotechnology invented by Agrikencana Perkasa Laboratory Of Resourches.

  • It consists of lignolitic, sellulolitic, hemisellulolitic, proteolitic, and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixtation.

  • The bacteria colony is Aerob, facultative Anaerob.

  • The bacteria culture in thermopilic based

  • It is use as the starter in decomposition process of organic substances (composting).


PROBIODEC® is bacteria colony which is selected for both its good kind and its ability. 

The bacteria contents are:

  • Sellulolitic microorganism : Trichodermapolysporeum; Trichodermaviride; Cellulomonasacidula; Bacilluscellulasedisolvens , etc..

  • Lignolitic microorganism: Clavariadendroidea; Clitocybealexandri; Hypolomafasciculare, etc.

  • Non symbiotic nitrogen fixation microorganism in the form of bacteria such as: Azotobacter Spp.; Beyerinkya Spp.; Clostridiumpasteurianum, Nostoc Spp.; Anabaena Spp.; Tolypothrix Spp.; Spirillumlipoferum; etc.

  • Amylolitic microorganism from strain Streptomyces, Nocardia dan Micromonospora.

  • Phospate decomposer microorganism from species : Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Mycobacterium, Flavobacterium, Fusarium, Sclertotium etc.

  • Fotosintetic microorganism: (Rhodopseudomonas palustris; Rhodobacter sphaeroides)

  • Laktat Acid Bacteria:(Lactobacillus plantarun; Lactobacillus casei; Streptococcus lactis)

  • Actinomycetes (Streptomyces albus; Streptomyces griseus)

  • Mushrooms Anthagonis ( Trichoderma basiana)

  • Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

  • Nitrogen Fixation (Azospirillum, Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium)

  • Fe3+ Fixation Bacteria(Pseudomonasfluoresens)

  • Sulfur Fixation bacteria (Thiobacillus)

  • Manganese Reduction Bacteria up into Mn2+

h probiodex


The Decomposition process using bacteria has several advantages :

  1. The process is natural, takes short time, using no chemical substances and inexpensive.
  2. The process is harmless for environment (by product are CO2 and H2O).
  3. The product of organic fertilizer is high quality, save and stable. Commonly called Ligno Fine Compost.
  4. The standard of high quality of compost are : Free from any weed seed, free pathogenic microorganism, free parasite and their egg , free offensive odors, and free phyhotoxide.
  5. The product of organic fertilizer contains macro and micro essential plant nutrient.
  6. The produc of organic fertilizer contains Bio stimulant (Auxin, Giberellin, Cytokinin, inhibiting etylen production)
  7. The product of organic fertilizer contains plant bioprotectant (Trichoderma Basiana)


Probiodex adalah biodecompuser